It is essential to know just what Adrenal Cortex is and how Corticosteroids are produced in Adrenal Cortex. To begin, Adrenal Cortex is one the two parts of the Adrenal glands.
The Adrenal glands are present on top of the kidney. As for what Adrenal Cortex is, it is the outer region of the Adrenal gland which produces hormones that are essential to life. It mainly produces two hormones, Aldosterone, which helps control the blood pressure in the body, and Cortisol, which helps in keeping the body metabolism up and regulated as well as helps the body to respond to stress properly.
Adrenal Cortex produces two kinds of Corticosteroids. Corticosteroids, commonly referred to as the Adrenal Cortex Steroids, are of two kinds, Glucocorticoids, and Mineralocorticoids. The former is very important for the carbohydrates in the body to sustain the carbohydrates, fat, and protein in the body. It is also very vital in suppressing all kinds of inflammatory substance in the body. The latter ensures the regulation of water and salt in the body.
Glucocorticoids Corticosteroids, better known as Systemic Corticosteroids, they have to be given from the outside. This kind of Corticosteroid are human-made steroids and have to be injected or given orally. In addition to Glucocorticoids actions of anti-inflammation and breaking down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in the body, they can also retain salt just like their partner Corticosteroid. The same property of replicating the effects can also be observed by Florinef, a synthetic Mineralocorticocoid. Florinef not only helps retain salt and water in the body but also ensures the anti-inflammatory action.
As far as the other kind goes, Synthetic Corticosteroids is referred to those patients who cannot produce the appropriate amount of Corticosteroids. Synthetic Corticosteroids objectives are to copy the exact actions of the Corticosteroids. The Synthetic version is often given in huge doze to ensure the patient does not fall back concerning their immunity, inflammation, salt level, and water balance.
There are plenty of Synthetic Corticosteroids such as:
- Celestone (Betamethasone)
- Prednisone Intensol (Prednisolone)
- Prelone (Prednisolone)
- Kenalog (Triamcinolone)
- Medrol, Depo-Medrol (Methylprednisolone)
- DexPak 10 (Dexamethasone)
- There are many synthetic corticosteroids available such as:
- Glucocorticoids: * Cortef (Hydrocortisone)
- Celestone (Ethamethasoneb)
- Prednisone Intensol (Prednisone)
- Prelone (Prednisolone)
- Kenalog (Triamcinolone)
- Mineralocorticoids: * Florinef (Fludrocortisone)
In addition to these two steroids produced by the Adrenal Vortex, Androgen is also produced by the Adrenal vortex following the production of Testosterone in the body. It must be emphasized that sexually-matured males will have a very little amount of androgen present in the Adrenal cortex as compared to the tests. But, bear in mind, that excessive amount of Androgen present in the Adrenal Cortex can lead to premature puberty in young boys.
As far as females go, Adrenal Cortex happens to be the ultimate source of Androgens in the body. But if there is an excess of it in the body, the body will produce more than usual hair, similar to that of the masculine counterpart, as well as bringing an end to the menstrual cycle.
When it comes to Adrenal Cortices, Addison’s disease is caused by the abnormal function of the Adrenal glands. It may be due to the infection caused in the Adrenal Glands; the destruction of it by the autoimmune attack; mutation in ACTH receptor on Adrenal Cells. If Adrenal hormones happen to be in deficiency by any means, it could be a life threatening situation. All this can easily deal with synthetic Corticosteroids.
The symptoms of Addison’s disease can be easily spotted. The symptoms include fatigue, a sharp decline in muscle strength and body weight. Almost 50% of the cases include Nausea, vomiting, and Diarrhea. Complaints of low blood pressure especially in the standing posture, dizziness and fainting are usual. One particular change that is usually observed is the change in skin pigmentation.
The skin darkens, and the darkening can be easily seen on scars, skin folds, lips, and all the pressure points present in the body. The disease can cause the person to fall in depression, and salt craving will be excessive due to the loss of salt in the body. Especially in women, the menstrual periods often tend to cease or come in irregular intervals. The symptoms do not appear all of sudden, and they gradually appear. However, any sudden illness or any accident can cause the symptoms to become worse.
On the contrary, the Cushing’s syndrome works the opposite way. The excessive production of Glucocorticoids can cause problems in the body such as excessive production of adrenals; a result of glucocorticoids therapy for disorders such as Rheumatoid Arthritis or avoiding the rejection of an organ transplant.
The most common symptoms of Cushing disease are related to weight and mental disorders. Weight gain can be observed very easily as the patient’s metabolism is rendered ineffective and is no longer able to burn fats. The fat deposits can be easily seen on the sides of the face, causing it to appear like a round shape.
The skin gets thinner and there are very likely to be purple stretch spots on the body. With the metabolism weakened, the body will not be able to recover wounds or skin injuries as fast as a normal body would do. There will be acne, episodes of anxiety and depression, followed by high blood pressure. Cushing disease may also affect sexual interests, fertility, and erectile dysfunction in men.