What Are Amino Acids?
Protein is made up of amino acids, which are the building blocks. Long chains of amino acids are what make up proteins. There are thousands of proteins in your body, each with its own important functions. Each protein is unique in its sequence of amino acids.
Each protein has its own sequence of amino acids that allows it to take on different forms and perform different functions in your body. Amino acids can be thought of as the alphabet’s letters. Combining letters in different ways can result in different words. The same goes for amino acids – when they are combined in different ways, you get different proteins.
What Are the Various Types of Amino Acids?
To function properly, your body requires 20 types of amino acids. These 20 amino acids can be combined in many ways to create proteins in the body. Although your body can make hundreds of amino acids every day, it cannot make all nine. These are called essential amino acids. These amino acids must be obtained from the food that you eat. These are the nine essential amino acids:
- Histidine: Histidine is a neurotransmitter in the brain called histamine. Histamine plays a vital role in your body’s immune function, digestion, and sexual function.
- Isoleucine: Isoleucine plays a role in your body’s immune function and muscle metabolism. It helps regulate energy and makes hemoglobin.
- Leucine: Leucine aids your body to make growth hormones and protein. It helps to grow and repair muscle tissue and heal wounds.
- Lysine: Lysine plays a role in the production and use of hormones, energy, and other substances. It is also essential for the maintenance of calcium and immune function.
- Methionine: Methionine aids in tissue growth, metabolism, and detoxification. Methionine is also helpful in the absorption of essential minerals like zinc and selenium.
- Phenylalanine: Phenylalanine is required for the production brain’s chemical messengers such as dopamine and epinephrine. It is also necessary for the production of other amino acids.
- Threonine: Threonine is an essential component of collagen and elastin. These proteins give structure to your skin and connective tissue. They are also responsible for forming blood clots which prevent bleeding. Threonine is also important in fat metabolism and immune function.
- Tryptophan: Tryptophan helps maintain your body’s correct nitrogen balance. It is also responsible for making a brain chemical called serotonin (neurotransmitter). Your mood, appetite, and sleep are controlled by serotonin.
- Valine: Valine plays a role in muscle growth, tissue regeneration, and energy production.
The body makes up the remaining 11 amino acids that you require. These are known as nonessential amino acids. These nonessential amino acids are alanine and arginine; asparagine; aspartic acid; cysteine; glutamic acid, glutamines, glycines, proline, serine, and tyrosine. Conditional amino acids include some that are not essential. They are only essential when you’re sick or under stress. These conditional amino acids are arginine and cysteine as well as glycine, proline, ornithine, and serine.
What Is the Structure and Function of an Amino Acid?
An organic chemical is an amino acid. Organic chemicals are made up of carbon-hydrogen bonds. The basic structure of all amino acids is the same. Each molecule contains a central carbon atom that is linked to basic amino, carboxylic acid, and hydrogen atoms. The R-group sets the amino acid apart.
Each amino acid’s chemical nature is determined by the R-group. It determines how the amino acid interacts with other amino acids and their surroundings. Amino acids are linked with peptide bonds to form proteins. The forces of other amino acids and their R-groups then fold the protein into three-dimensional shapes.
What Do Amino Acids Do?
To make proteins, your body uses amino acids. Each protein’s function is determined by the amino acids used and how they are combined. Amino acids play many roles in the body. Amino acids help:
- Disintegrate food.
- Repair and grow body tissue.
- Create hormones and brain chemicals (neurotransmitters).
- Provide energy sources.
- Keep your skin, hair, and nails healthy.
- Increase muscle mass.
- Boost your immune system.
- Sustain a normal digestive system.
How Many Amino Acids Do I Need?
While you don’t have to consume amino acids in every meal, it is important to maintain a healthy balance. For each essential amino acid, the daily recommended allowance is 2.2 lbs.
- Histidine: 14 milligrams
- Isoleucine: 19 mg
- Leucine: 42 mg
- Lysine: 38 milligrams
- Methionine: 19 mg
- Phenylalanine: 33 mg
- Threonine: 20 milligrams
- Triptophan: 5 milligrams
- Valine: 24 milligrams
What Foods Are Rich in Amino Acids?
Many foods contain essential amino acids. Animal proteins, such as eggs and beef, are the best sources of essential amino acids. Your body absorbs and uses animal proteins the easiest. Complete proteins are foods that contain all nine essential amino acids. These foods include beef and poultry, eggs, soy, quinoa, and buckwheat.
Incomplete proteins are foods that only contain some of the essential amino acids. These foods include beans, nuts, seeds, legumes, and certain grains. You must include a variety of incomplete proteins if you are a vegetarian or vegan to ensure that you get all nine essential amino acids.
Do I Need to Take Amino Acid Supplements?
A healthy and balanced diet will usually provide all of the amino acids your body requires. Amino acid supplements can be used to improve sleep quality, mood, and athletic performance. The supplements have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Before you start any supplement, including amino acid supplements, it is important to consult your healthcare provider.
Notes from Cleveland Clinic
Amino acids are essential building blocks for proteins. These are the molecules all living organisms need to make proteins. Your body needs 20 of these amino acids to function well. The body produces 11 of these essential amino acids. You don’t need to do anything to obtain the nine remaining amino acids.
All you need is a balanced diet. You should focus on complete proteins, which are foods that contain all nine essential amino acids. Complete proteins like nuts and beans can also be good. If you have any questions or need to get more amino acids into your diet, talk to your healthcare provider.